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China's Boundary

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"Chinese Territories Taken by Imperialism in the Old Democratic Revolutionary Era(1840-1919)" from A Short History of Modern China (first published in Peking in 1954), a text used in Chinese secondary schools.

Key to Map

(Translation of the information given in boxes on the map)

  1. The Great Northwest: seized by Imperial Russia under the Treaty of Chuguchak, 1864. [Parts of present Soviet Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, and Tadzhikstan.]
  2. Pamirs: secretly divided between England and Russia in 1896.
  3. Nepal: went to England after "independence" in 1898.
  4. Sikkim: occupied by England in 1889.
  5. Bhutan: went to England after "independence" in 1865.
  6. Assam: given to England by Burma in 1826.
  7. Burma: became part of the British Empire in 1886.
  8. Andaman Archipelago: went to England.
  9. Malaya: occupied by England in 1895.
  10. Thailand: declared independent" under joint Anglo-French control in 1904.
  11. Annam: occupied by France in 1885 [covers present North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia.]
  12. Taiwan and Peng-hu Archipelago [Pescadores]: relinquished to Japan per the Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895.
  13. Sulu Archipelago: went to England.
  14. Region where the British crossed the border and committed aggression.
  15. Ryukyu Archipelago: occupied by Japan in 1879.
  16. Korea: "independent" in 1895 -annexed by Japan in 1910.
  17. The Great Northeast: seized by Imperial Russia under the Treaty of Aigun, 1858.
  18. The Great Northeast: seized by Imperial Russia under the Treaty of Peking, 1860.
  19. Sakhalin; divided between Russian and Japan.

Translations based on Salisbury's War Between Russia and China.

(China's Boundary Treaties and Frontier Disputes. Luke T. Chang, USA, 1982, p. 217-218. Appendices, MAP 15)